The Arctic — a region of a unique combination of the inimitable nature and severe climate, richest natural resources deposits and low population, extremely vulnerable and intact ecosystems, an arena of international integration and geopolitical antagonism. Nowadays the exploration of the Arctic Region requires new approaches, ensuring rational subsoil use and nature protection based on state-of-the-art science and technologies and first of all space ones. It should be noted that in 2010 a considerable growth in cargo traffic on the Northern Sea Route (“Atomflot” nuclear-powered ice-breakers for the first time escorted an oceanic super-tanker from Europe to Asia, a bulk carrier and a ferryboat) was achieved thanks to the application of information received from space. In 2011 a further growth of freight traffic is expected. The first oil production platform at the “Prirazlomnoye” oil field will be rigged up at the Arctic shelf of the Pechora Sea. Space technology ought to become an efficient tool in the national economy development to make the might of Russia that used to “grow by Siberia” grow by the Arctic Region as well.
Deputy General Director of ScanEx RDC
Analysis of Dynamic Processes in the Arctic Region Based on Earth Remote Sensing.D. Dobrynin
Arctic Region ecosystems, developing under conditions of limited solar heat, start to change unpredictably at the slightest temperature rise of the vegetation period and increase in its duration. Images of the vegetation in the space imagery materials contain basic properties, considered during interpretation of the permafrost zone conditions, hydrological regimes of the substrata, soil characteristics and soil combinations. Earth remote sensing data enable to detect and to assess the dynamics of micro-, meso- and macro-relief forms and the instability of the ecosystem in general.
First Steps of Aerial Photo Surveys in Polar Latitudes.F. Romanenko
Aerial photos played an important role both in mapping of northern regions of our country and in opening many natural resources, contained in the subsoil. The “Arctic Prospecting” trust placed itself on record of the Arctic Region studies. Aerial photos formed the basis of the created topographic maps of different scales and until the uprisal of the era of high resolution space imagery remained the core of practically all research works on the coasts and islands of the Arctic seas.
Northern Sea Route: Application Economics.V. Mikhailichenko
This article presents the analysis of transit navigation through the Northern Sea Route. High traffic rates in recent years for ice-breaking services have practically corked the Northern Sea Route. However, according to the Federal Tariff Service degree from June 07, 2011 №122-т/1 the rates for ice-breaking services can be reduced to attract the cargo traffic to the Northern Sea Route. The article has calculations that show that the rates reduction down to the Suez Canal level will immediately bring profit to ship-owners and further reduction may make the Northern Sea Route more and more attractive for transit navigation.
Selecting Navigation Routes and Accessing Efficiency of Ice Navigation Data Application.N. Babich
The practice of ice channeling reveals that the actual route of the convoys differs a lot from the anticipated itinerary. It is expedient to use original digital images with respective software, enabling to combine geolocated images with electronic route maps, to resolve individual tactical tasks of navigation, such as itinerary selection, escorting method and safe maneuvering through the ice.
Satellite-Based Escorting of the Ice Expedition in the Laptev Sea.V. Dubina, L. Mitnik. I. Semiletov, O. Dudarev, A. Kucheiko
The international ice-marine expedition, carried out in April 2011 on the ice of the Buor-Xaiya Bay in the Laptev Sea continued the research scientific work, aimed at the study of the role of exogenous processes in transformation of seashore shelf permafrost zone of Late Quaternary period and evaluation of climate changes. Satellite radar images enabled to map in details the position of ice cracks and narrow ice leads within the area of the research scientific work.
Stamukha Detection within the Water Area of the East-Siberian and Kara Seas Using Remote Sensing Data.А. Davydov. S. Daineka, A. Kim
The project of operational satellite-based detection of large stamukhas in shallow water areas of the Kara and East-Siberian seas was carried out in spring 2011. These seas are used for ships routing during the navigation season. The main source of information was 100 m resolution radar and 250 m resolution optical images. Only large stamukhas with fast ice of several miles long and wide around them were detected as a result.
Satellite-Based Monitoring of Ice Situation in the Sea of Okhotsk.V. Levin, A. Alexanin, M. Alexanina, P. Babyak, A. Gromov, Yu. Naumkin, E. Fomin, M. Stopkin
This article reviews the possibility of conducting satellite-based monitoring of freezing seas within Far Eastern Region. A brief description of the platform already created for this purpose at the Center of multiple access of regional satellite-based environmental monitoring of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, as well as the experience of information support of ice channeling of ship and their search using satellite images.
Using Satellite Radar Images for Ice-Breaking Operations on the White Sea.V. Ilyin, A. Kucheiko
During the winter 2010-2011 navigation season the Arkhangelsk Branch of the FSUE “Rosmorport” used operational satellite imagery data for successful ships channeling in the White Sea. Ice situation was analyzed based on RADARSAT-1 radar data. Space information allowed increasing the efficiency of ice-breakers operations at the White Sea and reducing ships downtime, while waiting for the being escorted.
Study of Atmospheric Convection Over the Arctic Ice Openings Applying Supercomputer Computations and High Resolution Satellite Data.V.Stepanenko, A. Debolsky, M. Varentsov, D. Kuznetsov. M. Zimin
According to the results of the expedition on the White Sea in winter 2011, an experimental study of the opening in the ice of the Bolshaya Salma Strait was carried out. A method of 3D numerical hydrodynamic modeling was applied to simulate the dynamics of the frontier atmospheric layer over the opening in the ice, whereas remote sensing data was used to get the actual data about the limits of the ice opening.
Hydrometeorological and Ice Conditions within the River Basins of the European Russian North in Winter Period.Е. Skripnik, L. Vasiliev
Spring flood of 2011 on the rivers of the European Russian North is related to the category of “low water” ones. Maximum water levels turned out lower than average multi-year values by 50-200 cm. Satellite images detected locations of autumn ice jams formation. This data, as well as the actual data from test stations and ground and aviation studies and forecasting data, prepared at the Northern Department of Hydro Meteorological Service, were used to develop the plan of preventive measures, providing for activities and their financing of ice outburst in estuary areas of the Severnaya Dvina River, as well as population and facilities flood protection measures.
Remote Geothermal Mapping of Arctic Areas (Case Study: Novaya Zemlya Archipelago).B. Georgievsky
The article describes the results of experimental application of remote geothermal sensing for comprehensive study of arctic areas. Navaya Zemlya was taken as the case study. Interpretation of remote geothermal sensing results for arctic areas requires rationale and characteristics of quite a number of geological conditions, capable of determining daily surface temperature, displayed during remote geothermal mapping.
Using Multi-Temporal Aerospace Imagery for Coastal Dynamics Investigations at Kara Sea.S. Ogorodov, N. Belova, D. Kuznetsov, A. Noskov
Construction and operation of engineering facilities in the coastal zone of the Arctic seas taking into account the requirements of the geotechnical and geo-environmental safety require consideration of hazardous natural processes in the contact zone between atmosphere, hydrosphere and permafrost. The article describes an example of using multi-temporal aerospace imagery for coastal dynamics investigations along the main gas pipelines system "Bovanenkovo – Ukhta" across Baidaratskaya Bay, Kara Sea.
Biodiversity of the Arctic and Subarctic Seas of Russia
Interview with Konstantin Zgurovsky (WWF Marine Program Coordinator) gives an idea about biodiversity of the Arctic Region and specifics of using its bio resources.
Using Satellite-Based Technologies for Study and Conservation of Biodiversity in the Russian Arctic Region.V. Rozhnov, D. Glazov, A. Salman
In August 2010 – March 2011 the A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution managed a pilot project intended for the refinement of methods of joint use of different types of data while doing biological studies. White whale (belukha) was used a case study. This whale is at the top of the marine food chain and is recognized as the indicator of the marine ecosystem status. Conducted analysis enabled to understand the reasons and factors impacting the migration activity of belukhas near Sakhalin. Such projects may help detecting behavior patterns, habitat specifics of not only belukhas, but other marine mammals, fish and birds as well.
Using Earth Remote Sensing Data during Emergency Response at ZAO “Belomorskaya neftebaza”.N. Ryubchak
The list of potentially hazardous sites and critical infrastructures of Murmansk Region includes 76 fire and explosion hazardous sites, among them - large platforms for oil and oil derivatives storage and transfer. One of such platforms is ZAO “Belomorskaya neftebaza”. On May 7, 2011 traces of oil products were detected near the quay #3 of “MSP Vitino” oil loading terminal. Earth remote sensing data were used to verify the acreage of the water area pollution in Kandalaksha Bay.
Space Monitoring Center of the Arctic Region of the Northern (Arctic) Federal University.S. Koposov
Space monitoring center of the Arctic Region of Northern (Arctic) Federal University is open since November 2010. The center’s activities are aimed at the main solutions: training of specialists, research scientific work, monitoring of region territory and provision of near real-time data in support of decision-making by commercial entities.
Experience of Aerospace Education in Yakutia.О. Moroz
On July 23 – August 1 the Physico-Mathematical Lyceum “Lensky Krai” became the venue of the V summer aerospace school “Arctic Region - the Road to Space”. Over 150 children, students and tutors from 20 different settlements (regions) of the republic received training in the Earth Remote Sensing Laboratory of the Lyceum.
Studying population of Atlantic walrus in Barents Sea using space technologies.A. Knizhnikov, A. Boltunov, V. Semenova, N. Yevtushenko
The project to tune walrus location interpretation methods using space imagery data was launched in June 2011 on the coastal rookeries of south-east of the Barents Sea. On the EROS B image, received on July 28, 2011, the specialists detected a group of about 200 walruses within the coastal zone of the Matveev Island.