What is the connection between modern geoweb technologies and nature protection? Civil society institutions need their own set of tools providing for competent and adequate evaluation and review of occurrences and events taking place in and outside Russia. Web 2.0, UGC, Wikipedia, Crowd Sourcing – these are the new approaches to enter into a dialogue with the growing community of the Internet users involving more and more concerned people into the discussion about environmental changes. Network technologies have become ingrained in our everyday life: schoolchildren are now plunged into web networks, adults - in cellular networks, even the latest Pentagon warfare philosophy is called network centric. With all the great influence it has on the ecosystems of Earth, mankind uses network technologies in the areas of rational nature management, solving nature protection issues and studying changes in Earth surface and climate. Network solutions also constitute an important component of satellite monitoring technologies. Numerous remote sensing satellite constellations form the global space-borne network for Earth processes observations. Geographically distributed networks of receiving stations have been established to process enormous data flows. Finally, network web-technologies deliver ready products to end-users. The foreign geoservice Google Earth and its domestic equivalents Kosmosnimki.ru, Yandex.Maps and Mail.Maps built using in-depth processing of long-term Earth imaging base, have become classic examples of that.
Use of API Web-Mapping Services for Accessing Geodata.By G.V. Potapov and M.Y. Potanin
The article is devoted to integration of GIS and web technologies. The authors review the general principles and features of web-mapping application programming interfaces (API) and web-mapping standards. A focus is made on the new software product GeoMixer designed to simplify work with API service and provide tools intended to assist in developing geoinformation projects and publishing geodata on the Internet.
ScanNet Network Technologies in the Operational Satellite Monitoring.By V.E. Gershenzon and A.A. Kucheiko
In the recent years the Earth remote sensing industry has experienced rapid development of operational monitoring provided by satellites with imaging hardware of middle and high spatial resolution. Based on the experience of integrating detailed space imagery operational data provided by the leading satellite missions the ScanEx Center developed the ScanNet technology built on the concept of coordinated imagery management and flow processing of near real-time imagery data received from several high spatial resolution satellites.
Monitoring of Protected Natural Areas and other Valuable Areas in Russia Using Earth Remote Sensing Data.By E.B. Tsybikova, D.E. Aksyonov and Yu. E. Zenkevich
In September 2008 NGO Transparent World together with ScanEx RDC initiated the pilot project for monitoring of the Protected Natural Areas in Russia. The goal of the project is to observe natural phenomena as well as economic activity including that of illegal nature with the use of Earth remote sensing data.
Comprehensive Approach to Use of Satellite Data: Nature Protection and Environmental Issues.By A.L. Salman
The CLS Company is the operator of the Argos satellite system that was commissioned thirty years ago to tackle environmental tasks. One of the primary applications of the system is animal and bird tracking. In addition, radio beacons of the Argos satellite system are successfully used for monitoring transport operations. Another traditional task of the Argos system is the world ocean research.
Russian Services for Satellite-Based Maritime Oil Pollution Monitoring: Current State and Potential.By A.A. Kucheiko, V.V. Zatyagalova, R.N. Modeev and V.V. Stanovoy
The technologies for satellite-based maritime oil pollution monitoring have been implemented and commonly used in many countries in combination with fast response systems. Other observation tools are supplemented with satellite information, which provides operational all-weather monitoring of vast marine areas based on wide-swath and high-resolution imagery. The article is devoted to the existing systems of satellite radar monitoring, issues faced in the process of developing oil pollution satellite radar monitoring and prospects for its introduction in Russia.
The “Red Tide” Monitoring in the Black Sea.By O.N. Yasakova and V.S. Berdnikov
Monthly research-oriented monitoring of phytoplankton in the Novorossiysk Bay and adjoining waters of the north-eastern shelf of the Black Sea has been carried out by personnel of the RAS Southern Scientific Center since 2004. In March 2008 for the first time ever the space-borne technologies captured a red tide in the north-eastern part of the Black Sea.
Monitoring of the Hailar River Transfer (Upper Reaches of the Argun River) to the Lake Dalai in the Transborder Dauria.By E.B. Tsybikova, E.A. Simonov and I.V. Glushkov
Since May 2009 the NGO “Transparent World” and the “Dauria” International Protected Area with the assistance of “ScanEx” RDC and the WWF of Russia have carried out the project on satellite monitoring of water transfer from the Upper Argun (Hailar river) into the Lake Dalai (Inner Mongolia, China).The monitoring is based on very high, high and middle resolution images acquired by optical satellites (EROS B, IRS-P5, SPOT 2/4, Landsat 5/7).
River Flow Transfer: Russia vs China
As time passes the global water issue becomes increasingly critical for Mankind. Different countries apply their own solutions: some desalinate seawater, other control river flows. Professor R.S. Chalov, one of the leading Russian specialists in river bed research, Head of Makkaveev Laboratory of Soil Erosion and River Bed Processes of the Geographic Department of the Lomonosov Moscow State University shared his opinion on the river flow transfer issue.
Integration of Very-High Resolution Space Images Processing Algorithms for Forest Vegetation Automated Interpretation.By A.E. Novichikhin and O.V. Tutubalina
The article is dedicated to innovative methodology of space images automated processing based on global and focal image processing algorithms combination. Methodology application is demonstrated in a QuickBird image of the Tuliok River in the Khibiny Massiff.
Application of Space Images for the Purposes of Forest Certification.By M.L. Karpachevsky
Recently the world witnessed growing interest to forest management certification systems. International certification system of Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is widely spread in Russia. Using this system as an example, the author of the article considers the problems of space images application for solution of various certification tasks.
Thematic Tasks Classifier for Natural Resources and Environment Assessment Based on Earth Remote Sensing Data
Use of Earth Remote Sensing Data Applications for Anthropogenic Environmental Impact Assessment In line with the topic of the 3rd issue of “Earth from Space — the Most Effective Solutions” magazine, sections of the latest (7th) edition of the “Thematic Tasks Classifier for Natural Resources and Environment Assessment Based on Earth Remote Sensing Data”, related to the anthropogenic impact on the environment, are published below.
Space Imaging for Effective Decision-Making.By V.I. Gerasimov
The current state of Russian economy in particular and the whole society in general require a change to using a most unbiased and accessible information. One of the options for such a decision is a data acquisition tool involving minimum human factor, i.e. the data will be provided without any primary distortions. Spatial data delivered by the Earth remote sensing satellites could be the technology serving this purpose.
“TRIATERRA” — Spatial Objects Data Management System.By A.A. Loschinin, S.I. Mikhaylov and D.G. Zegebart
Russian companies “ScanEx” R&D Center, “Mappl Groupp” and OOO “ARSINT” (Agency of Developers of Systems and New Technologies) joined their efforts and delivered a new software package for automation of recording, administrative and analytical tasks —TRIATERRA software package, which became a new step in developing software application packages and systems for automation of business and administrative tasks.
The “Living Map”: Internet-Competition for School Students on the Use of Earth Images from Space.By E.V. Smirnova and E.M. Aleksandrova
“Living Map” is the annual online Internet-competition that challenges schoolchildren to compete in their use of Earth images from space. Space images, delivered by Earth observation satellites, enable to visualize the Earth surface and processes that happen in atmosphere, on land and in the ocean.
ScanEx RDC — 20 Years
ScanEx RDC: 20 Years and 2.By V.E. Gershenzon
Time is galloping and 20 years of a free drift in the open waters of the Russia science-intensive market economy are already behind for “ScanEx” RDC! Technological developments resulted in the network of universal ground stations, which covered the whole territory of Russia including sea water areas. The network was started to operate efficiently in 2005 – 2006. Automation of control, data reception, processing and rendering services to the customers took 2 more years and only by the end of 2008 – early 2009 the ScanNet technology was finally formed, including tools of data flow processing (ScanMagic®, ScanEx Image Processor®) and visualization on the Internet (GeoMixer®, kosmosnimki. ru).
Remote Sensing Technologies in Russia: from Revolution to Evolution
For many years the cofounders and ideologists of ScanEx R&D Center, the married couple Olga and Vladimir Gershenzon, have been promoting and striving for a more democratic access to Earth remote sensing data received from space. ScanEx R&D Center General Director V. Gershenzon and his deputy O. Gershenzon tell us about establishment and development of this science intensive business.
From Geology to Ideology: Russian Reality of Space Technology Introduction
In the late 1990s departmental space data receiving network with the Ministry of Natural Resources was set up on the basis of ScanEx RDC’ technologies. Why the network is not developing today? Is space technologies development on the priority list of the state? What will help to enlarge space imagery application in the work of governmental authorities? Find the answers in the interview with S. Toropov, Head of Siberian branch of Federal State Institution “Rosgeolfund”.
Kurgan Region: 15 Years in”Space”
In 1995 “Liana” space data reception station was installed at the “Kurgan Region Territorial Foundation of Information on Natural Resources and Environmental Protection, Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation”. In 1996 the Foundation specialists obtained “ScanER” reception complex. Mikhail Shalyutin, Director of Federal State Institution “Kurgan Region Territorial Foundation of Information on Natural Resources and Environmental Protection at the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation”, speaks on particular features of space technologies implementation in Kurgan Region.
World Level of Russian Technologies
Lars Laestadius, main expert of World Resources Institute (USA), who has been working with ScanEx for 10 years, speaks about joint projects and analyzes the aspects of national and foreign space technologies development in the sphere of satellite imagery.
Private Public Partnership: Not a Cure-all Solution but a Way to Follow
Mr. Zhukov S. A., test-cosmonaut, “Technology Transfer Center“CJSC (TTC) General Director, President of “Moscow Space Club” public association, speaks about his cooperation with ScanEx RDC, reasons of Russian “space ignorance” and possible ways to overcome it.
Space Technologies of the EMERCOM of Russia: from Research and Development Projects to Departmental System
Over the last years, EMERCOM of Russia considerably enlarged the application of satellite data for the solution of tasks assigned to the Ministry. Today the Departmental space monitoring system is not just functioning but it continues to improve. Mr. Epikhin A. V., Head of Department -National Centre for Crisis Management Deputy Director, dwelled on details of space imagery application for emergency situations prediction, monitoring, and risk management and mitigation.
Regulations of the Russian Federation Civil Code on Commission and License Agreements Restrain Distribution of Intellectual Activity Results in Russia, Including Earth Remote Sensing Data.By A.V. Zolotukhin
This article highlights the violation quite often committed by distributors. It consists in commission agreement application for distribution in Russia of Earth observation data granted by foreign rightholders before the revision of the Civil Code. Undoubtedly, this kind of activity is beyond the legal framework. But the very fact of this activity shows the urgent need in legal settlement of the commission agreement application for the purpose of intellectual activity results distribution in Russia.
Association of Space Image Data Suppliers and Users.By A. A. Balagurov
Public statements by the Russian Federation leaders about easing–off security requirements in the sphere of geoinformation systems, space industry and navigation development are implemented through the adoption of new regulations at the highest level. Adopted regulatory acts and those in work are being developed and passed by Federal Space Agency, Ministry of Defense, Federal Agency of Geodesy and Cartography and other institutions without consideration of the private market players’ opinion and often lose touch with reality. In March 2009 ScanEx R&D Center came out with the initiative to create “Kosmosyomka” (Space Imaging)” Association (tentative name) in order to unify all interested participants and data suppliers on the ERS market.
General Problems of Russian Space Legislation.By I. M. Moiseev
Russia was the first country to start space era. However, shaping of legislation that rules the order of space activity began at the beginning of the last decade in the XX century only. In Russia the task of legal regulation of space activity, in its expanded format, was placed for the first time in the beginning of 1991 in National space exploration concept which was proposed by Moscow space club. By now more than ten draft laws concerning space activity problems have been introduced to State Duma. The article analyzes the results of most important and comprehensive draft laws review as well as possible algorithm of further development in sphere of space activity legal support.